Volume 3, 2017
Special Issue: "Orthobiologics: role of platelet-rich plasma in orthopaedic clinical practice" Guest Editor: Vijay D. Shetty
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Published online||09 October 2017|
A systematic review of the concept and clinical applications of bone marrow aspirate concentrate in tendon pathology
Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Circular road, Ismailia
2 The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham B31 2AP, UK
3 Birmingham University, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
4 St George Hospital, London SW17 0QT, UK
5 Faculty of Medicine, Zagzig University, 44519 Zagzig, Egypt
6 Department of Orthopaedics, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Forchstrasse 340, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland
7 Ashford and St Peters Hospitals, Chertsey KT16 0PZ, UK
8 Regenerative Medicine, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 4 July 2017
Tendon pathologies are a group of musculoskeletal conditions frequently seen in clinical practice. They can be broadly classified into traumatic, degenerative and overuse-related tendinopathies. Rotator cuff tears, Achilles tendinopathy and tennis elbow are common examples of these conditions. Conventional treatments have shown inconsistent outcomes and might fail to provide satisfactory clinical improvement. With the growing trend towards the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in other branches of medicine, there is an increasing interest in treating tendon pathologies using the bone marrow MSC. In this article, we provide a systematic literature review documenting the current status of the use of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) for the treatment of tendon pathologies. We also asked the question on the safety of BMAC and whether there are potential complications associated with BMAC therapy. Our hypothesis is that the use of BMAC provides safe clinical benefit when used for the treatment of tendinopathy or as a biological augmentation of tendon repair. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist while preparing this systematic review. A literature search was carried out including the online databases of PubMed, EMBASE, ClinicalTrial.gov and the Cochrane Library from 1960 to the end of May 2015. Relevant studies were selected and critically appraised. Data from eligible studies were extracted and classified per type of tendon pathology. We included 37 articles discussing the application and use of BMAC for the treatment of tendon pathologies. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) appraisal confirmed a satisfactory standard of 37 studies. Studies were sub-categorised into: techniques of extraction, processing and microscopic examination of BMAC (n = 18), where five studies looked at the evaluation of aspiration techniques (n = 5), augmentation of rotator cuff tears (n = 5), augmentation of tendo-achilles tendon (n = 1), treatment of gluteal tendon injuries (n = 1), management of elbow epicondylitis (n = 2), management of patellar tendinopathy (n = 1) and complications related to BMAC (n = 5). Multiple experimental studies investigated the use of BMAC for tendon repair; nonetheless, there are only limited clinical studies available in this field. Unfortunately, due to the scarcity of studies, which were mainly case series, the current level of evidence is weak. We strongly recommend further future randomised controlled studies in this field to allow scientists and clinicians make evidence-based conclusions.
Key words: BMAC / Stem Cells / Bone marrow aspirate concentrate / Tendon / Tendinopathy
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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