Volume 7, 2021
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||22 March 2021|
Short-term outcomes of total knee arthroplasty performed with and without a tourniquet
Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital Waterford, X91 ER8E Waterford, Ireland
2 Kilcreene Regional Orthopaedic Hospital, R95 DK07 Kilkenny, Ireland
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 28 February 2021
Introduction: Not using a tourniquet could improve early postoperative pain, range of motion (ROM), length of stay (LOS), and thromboembolic risk in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our aim was to compare these factors, intraoperative blood loss, and gender-related outcomes in patients undergoing primary TKA with or without a tourniquet. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 97 patients undergoing TKA with or without tourniquet from 2018 to 2020. Revisions and bilateral TKAs were excluded. Blood loss was estimated using a validated formula. Postoperative pain was tested using the visual analogue scale (VAS). ROM and quadriceps lag were assessed by a physiotherapist on a postoperative day 2 and discharge. The index of suspicion for a thromboembolic event was defined as the number of embolic-related investigations ordered in the first 6 months post-surgery. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to assess the distribution of the data, Mann–Whitney for the continuous variables, and Fischer’s test for the categorical ones. Results and Discussion: There was a significant difference in blood loss. The non-tourniquet group lost on average 32% more blood (1291 mL vs. 878 mL, p<0.001 two-tailed). We found no difference in pain, ROM, LOS, and quadriceps lag on day 2 and at discharge. There was one thromboembolic event in the tourniquet group, but the thromboembolic index of suspicion did not differ (p=0.53). With tourniquet use, women had a significantly lower day 2 maximum flexion than men (71.56° vs. 84.67°, p=0.02). In this retrospective cohort study, the results suggest that tourniquet use is associated with lower blood loss and similar postoperative pain, range of motion, quadriceps lag, length of stay, and thromboembolic risk. There might be some differences between how men and women tolerate a tourniquet, with women having worse short-term outcomes compared to men.
Key words: Knee surgery / Orthopaedics / Arthroplasty / Tourniquet / Total knee arthroplasty
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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