Volume 7, 2021
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Published online||17 December 2021|
Reduction in opioid use with perioperative non-pharmacologic analgesia in total knee arthroplasty and ACL reconstruction: a systematic review
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 615 Charles E Young Dr S, Rm. 410, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
2 Coastal Health Partners, 65 Nielson St #102, Watsonville, CA 95076, USA
3 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 15 November 2021
Introduction: The world’s opioid epidemic has gotten increasingly severe over the last several decades and projects to continue worsening. Orthopedic surgery is the largest contributor to this epidemic, accounting for 8.8% of postoperative opioid dependence cases. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are commonly performed orthopedic operations heavily reliant on opioids as the primary analgesic in the peri- and immediate postoperative period. These downfalls highlight the pressing need for an alternate, non-pharmacologic analgesic to reduce postoperative opioid use in orthopedic patients. The presented systematic review aimed to analyze and compare the most promising non-pharmacologic analgesic interventions in the available literature to guide future research in such a novel field. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science was performed for studies published before July 2020 based on the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) guidelines, and the obtained manuscripts were evaluated for inclusion or exclusion against strict, pre-determined criteria. Risk-of-bias and GRADE (grades of recommendation, assessment, development, and evaluation) assessments were then performed on all included studies. Results: Six studies were deemed fit for inclusion, investigating three non-pharmacologic analgesics: percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation, cryoneurolysis, and auricular acupressure. All three successfully reduced postoperative opioid use while simultaneously maintaining the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Discussion: The results indicate that all three presented non-pharmacologic analgesic interventions are viable and warrant future research. That said, because of its slight advantages in postoperative pain control and operational outcomes, cryoneurolysis seems to be the most promising. Further research and eventual clinical implementation of these analgesics is not only warranted but should be a priority because of their vast potential to reduce orthopedics surgeries’ contribution to the opioid epidemic.
Key words: Non-pharmacologic analgesia / Opioids / Cryoneurolysis / Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation / Auricular acupressure / Total knee arthroplasty / ACL reconstruction
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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