Open Access

Table 1

The 47 included studies containing arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery with pain as the primary outcome.

      Pain-related outcomes
Author, year Study design Intervention Pain scale Analgesic consumption Time to first request
Abdallah et al., 2016 RCT ISB + dexmedetomidine adjuvant vs. IV vs. none VAS + +
Ahn et al., 2016 RCT Pregabalin vs. placebo before surgery NRS +
Aksu et al., 2015 RCT ISB vs. intraarticular bupivacaine vs. none VAS + +
Alemanno et al., 2014 Non-randomized MIB levobupivacaine vs. levobupivacaine + buprenorphine vs. levobupivacaine + tramadol VAS +
Alemanno et al., 2016 Non-randomized MIB levobupivacaine vs. levobupivacaine + thiamine VAS +
Alfuth et al., 2016 RCT Cold compression vs. cold pack VAS
Basat et al., 2016 Case-series Suprascapular and axillary nerve block VAS
Cheng et al., 2016 Cohort Correlation of fibromyalgia and postoperative pain 10-point scale + +
Cho et al., 2015 Feb Non-randomized ISB vs. none VAS/Faces* +
Cho et al., 2015 May Non-randomized Zolpidem vs. none VAS +
Choi et al., 2015 RCT Stellate ganglion block vs. none VAS +
Cuff et al., 2016 Cohort Correlation of preoperative factors and postoperative pain VAS
D'Ambrosi et al., 2016 RCT Platelet rich plasma during surgery vs. none VAS
Desmet et al., 2015 RCT dexamethasone IV vs. placebo Likert + +
Dhir et al., 2016 RCT Suprascapular and axillary nerve block vs. ISB NRS +
Erden et al., 2017 quasi-RCT Standard pain assessment protocol vs. routine pain assessment VAS/NRS +
Faria-Silva et al., 2016 RCT Block with clonidine vs. block without clonidine NRS +
Han et al., 2013 RCT Multimodal local injection vs. i.v. patient-controlled analgesia VAS +
Jo et al., 2014 RCT Multimodal local injection vs. placebo VAS +
Khashan et al., 2016 RCT Preincisional intraarticular morphine vs. ketamine + morphine vs. placebo NRS +
Kim et al., 2016 RCT ISB 0.2% ropivacaine vs. ISB 0.75% ropivacaine vs. cervical epidural block VAS +
Kraeutler et al., 2015 RCT Compressive cryotherapy vs. ice VAS +
Lane et al., 2014 case series Same day discharge after GA and ISB NRS
Lee et al., 2015 RCT Local anesthetic injection in the GH vs. the SA vs. both VAS +
Lee et al., 2014 RCT SSNB + ANB vs. SSNB + placebo VAS
Lee et al., 2015 RCT Arthroscopy guided SSNB vs. placebo VAS +
Lee et al., 2012 Non-randomized ISB vs. SSNB + ANB vs. none VAS +
Lehmann et al., 2015 RCT GA vs. GA + ISB vs. ISB NRS + +
Merivirta et al., 2013 RCT Subacromial bupivacaine infusion vs. transdermal fentanyl patch NRS +
Merolla et al., 2015 RCT Dietary supplement vs. placebo VAS +
Park et al., 2016 RCT SSNB + ANB vs. SSNB vs. none VAS
Perdreau et al., 2015 RCT Multimodal local injection vs. placebo VAS + +
Rubenis et al., 2015 Non-randomized Undersurface rotator cuff repair vs. bursal-side rotator cuff repair Likert
Ryu et al., 2015 RCT Supraclavicular brachial plexus block vs. ISB NRS + +
Salviz et al., 2013 RCT ISB vs. ISC vs. GA NRS + +
Saritas et al., 2015 RCT Intraarticular magnesium sulphate vs. placebo VAS +
Schwartzberg et al., 2013 RCT Subacromial bupivacaine infusion vs. placebo vs. none VAS** +
Shin et al., 2014 RCT ISC infusion + PCA vs. ISC PCA vs. IV PCA NRS +
Shin et al., 2016 RCT C5-approach ISB vs. ISB vs. none NRS
Tham et al., 2013 Cohort Correlation between tendon thickness and pain Likert
Vorsanger et al., 2013 RCT Tapentadol vs. oxycodone NRS +
Wei et al., 2014 Up-and-down Infusion rate of ropivacaine in ISC NRS +
Wiegel et al., 2017 RCT SSNB vs. ISB NRS +
Woo et al., 2014 RCT Ketamine infusion during GA combined with single-shot ISB NRS + +
Woo et al., 2015 RCT Dexamethasone on the duration of single shot ISB NRS + +
Yeo et al., 2017 Cohort Correlation of rotator cuff tear area and postoperative pain Likert
Yun et al., 2012 RCT Patient-controlled analgesia vs. intravenous patient-controlled analgesia VAS +

ANB, axillary nerve block; GA, general anesthesia; ISB, interscalene brachial plexus block; ISC, interscalene catheter; MIB, middle interscalene block; NRS, numeric rating scale; PCA, patient controlled analgesia; RCT, randomized controlled trial; VAS, visual analogue scale; SSNB, suprascapular nerve block.


Cho et al. report using VAS but report that participants had to “point to the position on the line between the faces”.


Schwartszberg et al. report using a VAS, but describe pain scores being obtained verbally.

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