Literature debate summary.
|Blood loss||Pro-tourniquet||Cai et al.  – Tourniquet use can significantly decrease intraoperative blood loss but did not significantly decrease postoperative blood loss.|
|Anti-tourniquet||Schnettler et al.  – Tourniquet use with tranexamic acid leads to more blood loss than tranexamic acid alone.|
|Functional outcomes||Pro-tourniquet||Goel et al. (randomized controlled study)  – Tourniquet use has similar in-hospital functional results compared to no tourniquet McCarthy et al.  – No clinically important differences in pain, ROM, and LOS during an in-hospital stay between groups.|
|Anti-tourniquet||Huang et al. (randomized controlled study)  – No tourniquet and tranexamic acid leads to less pain, less swelling, better ROM, and satisfaction during hospital stay compared to tourniquet use Chen et al. (randomized controlled study)  – Half-course tourniquet use leads to less pain and better ROM than full-course tourniquet use.|
|Gender-based outcomes||There is a difference||O’Conner  – Gender has been shown to impact both function and pain relief both before and after TKA. Women have a worse preoperative physical function and do not reach the same final level of physical function as men.|
|There is no difference||Gen et al.  – Gender does not seem to affect short-term outcomes.|
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