Table 1

Patient risk factors for instability (ASA; American Society of Anaesthesiologists; BMI: Body mass index).

Age > 75 years Female age > 70 years Prior surgery (hip)
ASA grade > 3 Avascular necrosis Fractured neck of femur
Inflammatory arthropathy BMI > 3 kg/m2 Lumbar pathology
Degenerative disc disease Lumbar canal stenosis Lumbar fusion surgery

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