Volume 6, 2020
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Published online||16 July 2020|
Skeletal involvement in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: healing, complications, and functional outcome
Consultant of Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery, Children Cancer Hospital-Egypt (57357), 11617 Cairo, Egypt
2 Lecturer, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag, Egypt
3 Professor of Pediatrics, Pediatric Department National Research Centre, Consultant of Pediatric Oncology Children Cancer Hospital-Egypt (57357), 11617 Cairo, Egypt
4 Consultant of Pediatric Oncology, Children Cancer Hospital-Egypt (57357), 11617 Cairo, Egypt
5 Professor of Radiodiagnosis National Cancer Institute NCI, Cairo University Head of Medical Imaging Department, Children Cancer Hospital-Egypt (57357), 11617 Cairo, Egypt
6 Professor of Pathology National Cancer Institute NCI, Cairo University Consultant of Pathology, Children Cancer Hospital-Egypt (57357), 11617 Cairo, Egypt
7 Clinical Research Senior Supervisor, Children Cancer Hospital-Egypt (57357), 11617 Cairo, Egypt
8 Head of Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery Unit, Children Cancer Hospital-Egypt (57357), 11617 Cairo, Egypt
9 Lecturer, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 12613 Giza, Egypt
Accepted: 22 June 2020
Introduction: Skeletal involvement in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a common feature of the disease. Several options for the treatment of these skeletal lesions have been reported. We describe our experience in the treatment of skeletal involvement of LCH in this retrospective case series study, entailing anatomic distribution, pattern of healing, skeletal deformities, and functional outcome of skeletal LCH. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for patients diagnosed with LCH and having skeletal lesions in the period between 2007 and 2015. Out of a total of 229 cases, 191 (83.4%) had skeletal involvement. Bone healing was divided into partial and complete based on the size of lesion and cortical changes in plain radiograph. Skeletal deformities were serially measured. Time to pain control, resumption of weight bearing, and the final functional status of the patient were reviewed. Results: The mean age at presentation was 4.4 years (3 m–14.8 y) and the mean follow-up period was 53.3 months (0.2–120.7). After screening of skeletal and extra-skeletal lesions, 59 patients (31%) had M-S (Multisystem) LCH and 132 (69%) had S-S (Single system) LCH. Unifocal bone lesions were found in 81 (42.5%) patients, and multifocal bone lesions in 110 patients (57.5%). Single or multiple bone lesions were found in the craniofacial bones in 152 patients (79.5%), femur in 19 patients, (10%), ribs in 18 patients (9.4%), spine in 15 patients (8.1%), pelvis in 14 patients (7.3%), scapula in 8 patients (4.1%), humerus in 6 (3.1%), clavicle in 6 patients (3.1%), tibia in 3 patients (1.5%), radius in 3 patients (1.5%), and the ulna in 2 patients (1%) patients. No lesions were found in the fibula, hand, or foot. Out of all skeletal lesions, 179 (93.7%) patients were treated either medically or conservatively and 12 patients (6.2%) were treated surgically. The mean time to complete healing was 5.2 months (2–12). Skeletal complications included: pathologic fractures (9 vertebra plana, 5 long bone, 1 iliac bone), deformities (9 thoracolumbar kyphosis, 2 cervical spine subluxations, 2 coxa vara deformity of the proximal femur and one flattening of iliac bone). Conclusion: Non-operative treatment can lead to adequate bone healing in few months period. Partial or complete remodeling of bone deformities can be observed without surgical correction. However, surgical intervention might be indicated when cervical spine affection may lead to instability and subsequent neurological affection. Functional impairment is rarely caused by skeletal lesions in LCH.
Key words: Langerhans cell histiocytosis / Skeletal / Spontaneous remodeling
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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